2018年3月3日托福考试阅读真题(赠送)

赠送大家2018.3.3 托福阅读真题

2018-03-04 Grace整理翻译 杜克出国语言

大家好,我是Adrian,昨天,也就是33日托福考试,我们中了一篇托福阅读的原题,先赠送给大家正文部分以及翻译,由我们的Grace编辑和整理,我负责贴上来~~

Mesopotamian and Egyptian Settlement Patterns

美索不达米亚人和埃及人的定居模式

1. On the basis of availableevidence, there existed in ancient state-level societies a variety of urbantypes. These have been classified under a number of different headings, rangingfrom city-states to territorial- or village-states. Mesopotamia and Egypt, forexample, traditionally represent the two opposing extremes along a spectrum ofpossible settlement distributions and types.

 

基于现有的证据,在古代国家级的社会里存在着各种各样的城市类型。这些被归类在不同的标题下,从城市国家到领土或村庄国家。例如,美索不达米亚和埃及在传统上代表着两种对立的极端,伴随着可能的定居分布和类型。

 

2 Mesopotamian city-states systemswere made up of densely populated urban areas that shared a common language,status symbols, and economic systems, but their elites tended to compete witheach other, often militarily, to control territory, trade routes, and otherresources. Each city-state controlled a relatively small territory, often onlya few hundred square kilometers, and had its own capital city, which is manycases was enclosed by a wall. In addition to its capital, a city-state mightgovern a number of smaller centers, as well as numerous farming villages andhamlets. Ancient Sumer is a classic example of such a system.

 

美索不达米亚的城邦体系由人口密集的城市地区组成,这些地区拥有共同的语言、地位象征和经济体系,但他们的精英趋向于相互竞争,通常在军事上,来控制领土、贸易路线和其他资源。每个城市国家都控制着一个相对较小的领土,通常只有几百平方公里,并且有自己的首都,很多情况都是被围墙围起来的。除了首都之外,一个城市国家可能管理一些较小的中心,以及众多的农业村庄和村庄。古代苏美尔就是这样一个系统的典型例子。

 

3. In ancient Mesopotamia, urbancenters tended to be relatively large, with populations ranging from less than1000 to more than 100000 in habitants, depending on the ability of a particularcity-state to control and collect payments from its neighbors. Often, aconsiderable number of farmers lived in these centers to secure greaterprotection for themselves and their possessions. It is estimated that insouthern Mesopotamia (circa 2900 C2350 BC) more than 80 percent of the totalpopulation lived in cities.

 

在古代的美索不达米亚,城市中心往往相对来说比较大,居民的数量从少于1000到多于100000不等,这取决于某个城市国家控制和收取邻国费用的能力。通常,相当多的农民住在这些中心来为他们自己和财产获得更大的保护。据估计,在美索不达米亚南部(约公元前2900-2350),超过总人口的80%人居住在城市。


 4.These cities also supportedcraft production, which sought to satisfy the demands of the urban elite andsociety as a whole. The development of craft specialization and commercialexchanges between town and countryside as well as between neighboring urban centersencouraged the growth of public markets. Although the evidence for actualmarketplace is less than clear for southern Mesopotamia, the remnants ofshop-lined streets indicate vigorous commercial activity involving largenumbers of people. This activity in turn promoted competition among city-statesto obtain supplies of exotic raw materials. As a result of widespread access togoods produced by full-time specialists and the development of more intensiveagriculture close to urban centers, Mesopotamian city-states were able tosupport numerous nonfood producers, possibly as high a proportion as 20 percentof the total population.

 

这些城市也支持工艺生产,力求满足城市精英和社会整体的需求。在城镇和乡村之间的工艺专业化和商业交流以及邻近城市中心之间的发展,促进了公共市场的发展。尽管对美索不达米亚南部的实际市场证据并不清楚,但商店林立街道的遗迹表明,大量的人参与了生机勃勃的商业活动。这种活动反过来促进了各城市国家之间的竞争,以获得外来原材料的供应。由于广泛使用全职专家生产的商品和城市中心附近发展更密集的农业,美索不达米亚的城市国家能够支持许多非粮食生产者,占据了可能高达20%的总人口。

 

 5.In contrast to Mesopotamian,ancient Egypt’s population has traditionally been perceived as more evenlydispersed across the landscape, a characteristic of village-states. Topographyand the formation of the early state were the major factors contributing tothis dispersal. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had relatively secure and definedborders, allowing a single state to dominate the area. Additionally, thevillages and towns of Egypt, all of which were situated near the Nile on theriver’s narrow flood plain, had approximately equal access to the river and didnot have to compete among themselves for water as their contemporaries inMesopotamia were forced to do. As the main highway through Egypt, the Nileoffered innumerable harbors for shipping and trading, so there was no stronglocational advantage to be gained in one area as opposed to another, hence theEgyptian population generally remained dispersed throughout the valley anddelta in low densities. Trade specialists apparently were evenly spreadthroughout Egypt, supported by both independent workshops in small towns androyals patronage in the territorial capitals. In contrast to the defensive wallsof Mesopotamian city-states, the walls of Egyptian towns primarily defined anddelineated sections of the town (for example, a temple precinct from aresidential area).

 

相对于美索不达米亚,古埃及的人口传统上被认为更均匀地分布在地形中,这是一个村庄国家的特征。地形和早期状态的形成是造成这种分散的主要因素。与美索不达米亚不同的是,埃及有相对安全和明确的边界,允许一个国家统治这片地区。此外,埃及的村庄和城镇,都坐落在尼罗河上的狭窄的洪水平原上,他们几乎可以平等地进入河流,而且在美索不达米亚的同时代人被迫的时候,他们不需要为水而竞争。尼罗河作为贯穿埃及的主要公路,为航运和贸易提供了无数的港口,因此,在一个地区与另一个地区相比,没有强大的地理优势,所以埃及人口普遍分布在低密度的山谷和三角洲地区。显然,贸易专家遍布在埃及,在小镇的独立的工作坊和领土首府的皇室赞助下都得到了支持。与美索不达米亚城市国家的防御墙形成对比的是,埃及城镇的城墙主要界定和划定了城镇的各个部分(例如,一个居住邻域的寺庙区)

 

6.Egypt, however, was not withouturban centers. At points where goods entered the Nile valley via maritimeroutes or overland routes from the Red Sea via wadis (stream beds that remaindry except during the rainy seasons), the right circumstances existed for thegrowth of larger cities. Egyptian cities and towns shared certaincharacteristics with other contemporary societies but also displayed uniquetraits influenced by the culture and environment of the Nile valley. Thus, thegeopolitical system that evolved in ancient Egypt was different from that ofMesopotamia; Egypt developed a village or territorial state characterized bydispersed settlements of varying size, a form of urbanism that gave Egypt itsdistinctive identity.

 

然而,埃及并非没有城市中心。在货物进入尼罗河谷的地点,通过海路或超负荷的路线从红海的溪流进入(河床仍然保持着干涸除了雨季),对较大城市的发展来说是适宜的环境。埃及的城市和城镇与其他当代社会有着相同的特点,但是也展现出受尼罗河谷的文化和环境影响的独特特征。因此,古埃及的地理政治体系与美索不达米亚的地理政治体系不同;埃及发展了一个以不同规模的分散定居为特征的村庄或领土国家,这是一种城市主义形式,赋予了埃及自身的独特身份。

来自杜克独家整理~~~